Kurdistan is a state wide area in southwest Asia. The whole area of Kurdistan with controversial propagation consists of areas in northern Iraq (which has a far-reaching autonomy), southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria.
The area consists overwhelmingly of a Kurdish population. Despite the Kurds’ longstanding struggle for an independent nation of Kurdistan has never been recognized as a sovereign state. Some Kurdish organizations, ethnic represent the largest ethnic group in each area, has for many years pursued a struggle with political and / or military means to win Kurdish autonomy or to create a Kurdish state.
Kurdistan is not a nation, are not recognized and have no borders, except in the southern part. The Kurds can, however, to some extent, is called a nation, because they have a language and a common history and culture. The Kurds are closely related to other Iranian peoples, such as the Persians and Baluchis, and speak languages in the Iranian language group.
Among others, irredentiska ethnic groups in the area, with a claim to autonomy or independence, is Assyrian, Azeri and Turkmen. Turkey has often harsh methods fought all attempts to Kurdish autonomy also through a constitutional ban on the use of the Kurdish language. There is strong opposition within Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria against to grant the Kurds the rights and freedoms that they require. Several Kurdish journalists, writers and active politicians have been arrested by, among others, Iraqi, Iranian, Syrian and Turkish police and subsequently imprisoned, tortured and executed.
When the Ottoman Empire collapsed established Sheik Mehmud Berzinci with the Kurds in northern Iraq, a semi-independent state. This was molded into an emirate which lasted from September 1922 to July 1924.
Red Kurdistan (Kurdistan Stana fairs, Kurdistanskij Ujezd) is a historical autonomy that was established in Azerbaijan by Lenin in 1923. Red Kurdistan became official July 7, 1923 pursuant to a decision from a Soviet special committee but was dissolved on April 8, 1929. This autonomy was established in non- Kurdish land that is currently not considered to belong to Kurdistan.
On May 30, 1930 was re-established Red Kurdistan once again with the city of Lachin as autonomy capital with more districts than the first time, autonomy was established. This time existed autonomy two and a half months before it was dissolved July 23, 1930.
In Lachin was printed and published in the newspaper “Soviet Kurdistan” in 1931 for the first time.
Ararat Republic (Or Agirîrepubliken, Komara Agiriyê, the Kurdish name of the Ararat is Agiri) was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state and the uprising for freedom led by Ibrahime Agha, Ferzende sacks and General Ihsan Nuri. After a series of riots and clashes proclaimed the Republic of Ararat in 1927 during the ongoing uprising around the northern Kurdistan in eastern Turkey.
Ararat Republic existed for 3 years and 17 September 1930 when it was struck down by 66,000 Turkish soldiers and 100 aircraft from the Turkish Air Force was assisted by Russian and Persian soldiers, then loosening Ararat Republic and the witch hunt for those responsible for the republic began.
Kurdistan Republic (better known as ‘Mahabad republic’), as reduction of the republic’s greatness and importance, and of the name ‘Kurdistan’ is a term for a Kurdish state in eastern Kurdistan / western Iran established with Soviet encouragement and military aid in 1946 -1947 and which is called for the town Mahabad. Mahabad counted as the second semi-autonomous Kurdish state in the 1900s, after the Republic of Ararat. It was not autonomous in absolute terms because it was not recognized by the international community. The defeat was due mainly to the Soviet support wavered. Promised arms supplies from the Soviet Union failed to appear under pressure from the United States and other Western powers. To the surface was the republic 37,437 km², compared with Kiruna Municipality, which with its 20,715 km² is Sweden’s largest municipality.
Then Mahabad fell fled Republic General Mustafa Barzani who came from southern Kurdistan / Northern Iraq and all his men to the then Soviet Union while Qazi Mohammed refused to leave his people; he was captured and executed March 30, 1947.
Situation of the Kurds in Iraq
Between 1982-1988 was conducted Operation Anfal (based on the Anfal-sura in the Quran), ordered by Saddam Hussein and headed by his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid. This is an attempt to once and for all eradicate the Kurdish population in Iraq. However, were also subjected Kurds across the border, the Iran-occupied Kurdistan, of the attacks. During this period exterminated over 182,000 people, many mass graves found today. Over 4000 cities and villages razed to the ground. In addition to the torture prisons that existed in Arab Iraq, had been similar in the Kurdish part of the country – in the north. Most well-known of all is ‘Amna Sûreke’, where political prisoners, family and relatives of the ‘separatists and opponents of the state’ and various activists of the opposition movement, was imprisoned and tortured.
The most famous attack during the Anfal was 1988, March 16 when they bombarded the town of Halabja with various chemical bombs, including mustard gas and nerve gas. At least 5,000 people died (excluding livestock and wildlife), mostly women and children, but according to survivors believed the figure to be much higher than that. Even today suffer thousands of his injuries, mental and physical, and severe diseases such as cancer diseases, etc., are very common in the region.
The Kurds in Iraq rose after the Kuwait war and declared themselves independent. When Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq attacked were forced to close two and a half million Kurds to flee. Most fled to Iran and Turkey, which assisted the Kurds, at least partially. The scale of this mass exodus, together with concern about its destabilizing effect on the entire Middle East could the UN and a number of other international actors to perceive the situation as a threat to international peace and security. The Security Council adopted resolution 688 thereby to send UN troops into northern Iraq in order to establish and monitor a free zone.
In 1992 chose the Kurds its own parliament and a Kurdish government to control the area. However, this was not persistent and a war between the two main Kurdish parties broke out (PUK and PDK), which led to the relationship became even worse for the Kurds in Iraq. States, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey are all against an independent Kurdish state, and in different directions oppose the both their own Kurdish population but also the semi-autonomy Republic of Iraq.
Since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003, Iraq’s Kurdish-dominated area gained increased autonomy. They has conducted democratic elections. Turkey quickly showed his obvious displeasure over the new situation, and Turkish forces were quickly mobilized in eastern Turkey and the Turkish-Iraqi border to the Kurds would not dare to demand independence from Iraq. The latter mobilization at the border was subsequently increased in connection with the 5000 Turkish soldiers were forced to leave the territory of Iraq after Saddam’s fall. Officially being violated limit because it works against the PKK stationed in southern Kurdistan. The various Christian groups in Iraq that is still under the control of the Baghdad regime, has called for the formation of an administrative province for them, and that this province should belong to the northern Iraqi region of Kurdistan and under the protection of the KRG (Kurdistan Regional Government). Sunni Arabs from other parts of Iraq is also alleged they flee to northern Iraqi region to get protection from the conflicts that exist in southern and central Iraq. So far claimed around 50,000 Sunni Arabs have fled to the KRG-controlled cities.
Today Kurdish autonomy
In northern Iraq, the Kurds since 1991 had autonomy.
Situation of the Kurds in Turkey
Freedom of expression is very limited in Turkey. Mass Litigation and persecution on Kurdish civilians, Kurdish politician and writer is a fact.
It is forbidden to speak Kurdish in public places and Kurdish language must not be taught or used in education as Turkish national native language.
Kurdish personal names may indeed be chosen today, but that assumes that families are using the Turkish alphabet, which in practice makes it impossible for the Kurds to give their children Kurdish names. This is because many Kurdish names containing the banned letters Q, X and W that is missing in the Turkish alphabet.
Kurds existence and rights are not recognized and protected by the constitution, which in turn allows for discretion in public administration.
Still, there is no Kurdish representation in negotiations between the EU and Turkey.
The Kurdish struggle and the movement is growing stronger by the day, and equality between the sexes and different ethnicities is the theme song. This has emerged from the PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party) and the KCK (Kurdistan United Organizations). Although equality and women’s prominent position in society has been part of the Kurdish culture since ancient times, a clan society, and the Islamization affected the Kurdish people on many levels, especially in those parts which are occupied by Arab states. However, the gender image / culture once again received flourish with the PKK and KCK, which lengthened the international media in connection with the fighting in the city Kobanî in western Kurdistan / Syria-occupied Kurdistan, against the terrorist group ISIS where Kurdish female guerrillas and generals had to take great location in the report rings.
In about 14 percent of the regions of eastern Turkey, northern Iraq and northern Iran grows it today forest, but the forest has decreased over the years due to mismanagement and war. The wars have Turkish soldiers including burning down forests that are hiding places for many Kurdish guerrillas. But even during the genocide in Dersim (Tunceli officially) were burned fleeing people to death in forests set on fire. The same applies to soldiers and machineries of the remaining occupying powers.
The limit in excess of the Kurdistan region include natural resources such as oil, iron ore, coal, uranium, chromium and copper. Oil found all the time, mostly in Iraq-occupied Kurdistan, when interest in investment and trade have increased since the last Iraq war. However, even the Iran-occupied Kurdistan rich in oil but nothing is recovered when the regime to continue to strangle the Kurdish region and retain the extremely poor.
Despite the now barren landscape / -n Kurdistan is still rich in various fruits, especially pomegranates, apples, figs, grapes, watermelon, melon, etc. In some parts of Kurdistan are also grown olives, dates.
The Kurdish origin, religion, or rather the philosophy of life, called Yazdânism. From this, religions yezidism, Yarsanism and Alevism emerged. Even Zoroastrianism based on Yazdânism.
Today most Kurds confesses to Islam, although it is very rare with deep practice of the religion. Approximately 89-90% of all Kurds are Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims are a minority and they are mostly found in Khanaqin, Kermanshah and Ilam. There are also Kurdish Alevis who are a part of Shia Muslims and are mostly in Tunceli, Bingol and Elazig. Shia Muslims represent about 5% of all Kurds. Almost all Kurds are Muslims, 95% profess Islam. The four smaller minority groups are: 3% ezidier, 0.6% Christians and 1.4% Jews and yarsanier (most of whom live in eastern Kurdistan / Iran-occupied Kurdistan).